Chapter 1: Introduction to the Personal Computer

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Chapter 1 Questions

1.

480 Mbps

2.

Allows multiple computers to share a monitor, keyboard and mouse

3.

A Power Supply Unit:

1. converts AC from the Wall to DC, used by the system board

2. Drops the voltage level

4.

Form Factor

motherboards_form_factors

5.

Allows overclocking

6.

runs under its speed rating

7.

built up voltage

8.

An external SATA connection. Similar to using an external USB drive, but using SATA technology.

images

eSATA USB kit

9.

a user may browse the internet without the risk of infecting

the host system with a virus or malware. Virtual Machines run in a

protected space within the physical computer (“host OS”), sometimes

refered to as a ‘sandbox’.

10.

start -> control_panel -> Administrative_Tools -> Task Scheduler

C:\Windows\system32>taskschd.msc

11.

RAID 0 – disk striping.

Raid-mode-illustration

12.

RAID 0 – disk striping.

Raid-mode-illustration

13.

RAID 0 – disk mirroring.

raid-1-mirror

14.

RAID 5 – slower writes than either RAID 0 or RAID 1.

15.

Firewire

firewire

16.

Molex

molexpinoutdiagram

17.

20 or 24 pins

atx-pinout

18.

incorrect insertion

19.

Floppy drive power

Berg-power

20.

current – measured in ampere’s

21.

V = I * R ……. Voltage = Current * Resistance

22.

P = V * I ……… Power Wattage = Voltage * Current

 

Wheel_of_Doom

23.

110/115 – North America220/230 – Europe

IMG_0731

24.

ATX ……. Advanced Technology Extended

25.

ITX

VIA_Mainboards_Form_Factor_Comparison

26.

NorthBridge ……. chip set is responsible for controlling communication between the CPU and (both) the memory and graphics card. The communication path is the Front Side Bus (FSB).

370px-Motherboard_diagram.svg

27.

Zero Insertion Force – ZIF chip sockets are characterized by a lever arm or slider, which accomplishes the (previously required) contact insertion pressure by leveraging mechanical advantage. ZIF is thus a socket technology or feature, as opposed to a particular socket type. Many types of IC’s (Integrated Circuits) leverage (pun intended) ZIF technology. Today, all Intel and AMD chips utilize ‘ZIP’ as a basic feature.Below, three ZIF sockets are show for 3 different pin-out paradigms:

‘DIP’ IC

729px-Textoolfassung_28_(smial)

‘PGA’/socket A

528px-Socket_462.saa

‘LGA’/socket 1150

800px-Intel_Socket_115

28.

LGA (Lan Grid Array). An LGA socket contains the pin on the socket itself (as opposed to the CPU).

2lhGfYhpVWiTTdFW

 

cpu

29.

PGA (Pin Grid Array) sockets contain holes – the pins are located on CPU.

socket-am3

cpu2-8

30.

SouthBridge… chipset is responsible for connecting the processor with slower system components, including the PCI bus, I/O ports, drives and BIOS.

Schema_chipsatz

31.

ohms

32.

Hyperthreading …. when threads are processed

33.

Hypertrasport is open standards architecture for connecting processors with fast system components such as memory & video via point-to-point serial onnections; PCIe suport. ACPI power managment is also supported. This is a replacement for the Font Side Bus NorthBridge/SouthBridge chipset design.AMD3

34.

North Bridge. The Front Side Bus architecture employed two main chip sets to connect the processor to system devices. The fast components – memory and video – connected to the North bridge chip set via the system memory and bus and PCI or APG bus systems.

computer_motherboard_diagram_600

35.

CISC (Complex Instruction Set) processors allow a single instruction to entail multiple lower level operations.

36.

32 or 64 bit Front Side Bus data paths (were) used to connect the CPU to the North Bridge chip set.

Schema_chipsatz

37.

Graphics Processing Unit has a processor integrated onto video card itself.

38.

ROM Read Only Memory. A (basic) ROM chip cannot be erased/re-written.

39.

PROM – Programmable Read Only Memroy instructions are written after the chip leaves the factory. These chips cannot be erased/re-written.

40.

EPROM – Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory is written to the chip post production and may be re-programmed using UV light exposure.

41.

EPROM – Elecrically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memroy is written to the cip after production and may be re-programmed without removal from the system board.

42.

DRAM -

‘Dynamic Random Access Memory’ looses state/information if the memory modules are not refreshed with electrical signals on an ongoing basis.

43.

SRAM -

Static RAM is bother faster and requies less consistent refreshment as DRAM.

44.

SDRAM – Synchronous Dynamic RAM operates in step with the clock for the memory bus. This allows instructions to be ‘pipelined’; a given instruction need not be finished before another can be loaded (into the pipeline) in memory.

45.

Double Data Rate – DDR memory sends twice the amount of information (than SDRAM) per clock cycle compared to (non DDR) regular SDRAM.

46.

DDR/DDR2/DDR3

47.

DIMM – Dual Inline Memory Modules contain memory on both sides of its insertion pins. DIMMs have a 64 bit data path (compared to SIMMS memory modules)

48.

MHz – Mega Hertz (cycles per second).

49.

MB/s – Meaga Bytes per second.


50.

Chipset


51.

Chipset The chip set responsible for communication between the CPU and type systems fast components: memory and video.


52.

 

  • System Board
  • Power Supply (PSU)
  • Case

 


53.

CISC Complex Instruction Set Computer. This is the type of instruction set used on Intel based chips.


54.

RISC Reduced Instruction Set Computer. This is the type of instruction set used on Sun SPARC processors.


55.

Hyperthreading – Intel CPU’s.


56.

Hypertrhansport – high speed serial connections between the CPU and Memory/Graphics (used to be the Northbridge; with Hypertransport, the memory and video controllers reside on the CPU dia itself).


57.

FSB – Front Side Bus.


58.

Heat Sync – is used on both the CPU and GPU (Graphics Processing Unit; graphic card).


59.

Read Only Memory – chips with non-volitile instruction sets which are written at the factory. Early PC (x86/x88,etc) BIOS instructions were programmed onto ROM (memroy) chips.


60.

Flash ROM – ‘Electronically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory’ can be re-written w/o having to remove a chip from its socket.


61.

Notch – single ‘keyed’ notch position along the (DIMM) chip.

  DDR1/2/3

ddr.ddr2.ddr3


62.

Processor performance – CPU performance can be optimized by combining with memory that matching the processors top (speed) capability.


63.

Small Outline Dual Inline Memory Modules – are used in laptops and printers.


64.

SRAM – Static Random Access memory used for L1/L2/L3 processor cache is faster than Main memory and requries less refreshment.


65.

Flashing – the BIOS. Most modern BIOS programming is maintained using EEPROM, otherwise refereed to as ‘Flash memory’.

66.

  • PCI
  • AGP
  • PCIe


67.

HDD – Hard Disk Drive. A HDD is composed of a series magnetic platters. The disks/platters are spun such that a mechanical actuator arm positions itself across and reads information off the media.


68.

SSD – Sold State Disks employ Flash memory as the type of storage media.


69.

RAID 0 – ‘Striping w/0 Parity’ has the best I/0 for both r & rw, but, offers no redundancy

RAID 0

Raid-0


70.

RAID 1 – ‘Striping with Parity’

RAID 1

Raid1


71.

Mirroring/Duplexing

RAID 1

Raid1


72.

RAID 10 – a stripe of mirrors.

RAID 10

Raid10


73.

Telephone cable – used to connect a modem to a wall (RJ11) socket. This is the type of chord used to connect a DSL modem to the wall socket.

Phone cord

CS22237


74.

USB – the Universal Serial Bus tecnology is capable of ‘daisy-chaining’ up to 127 devices connected through a single USB input on the computer.

USB A & B

700px-USB.svg


75.

Firewire – the IEEE1394 standard.

4 and 6 pin:

609574436janek


76.

Parallel Port – the IEEE1294 standard transfers data 8 bits at a time (parallel).

4 and 6 pin:

609574436janek


77.

USB 1.0 – standard operates 12 Mega bits per second (max) transfer rates.


78.

Firewire – IEEE1394a operates at ~ 400 Mbps whereas IEEE1394b is rated ~ 800 Mbps .


79.

480 Mbp – max throughput.


80.

4.8 Gbps – max throughput.


81.

  • mouse
  • keyboard
  • trackball
  • draw pad
  • game controller
  • biometric
  • kvm switch
  • touch screen
  • camera


82.

via:

  • Mouse
  • Keyboard
  • Trackball
  • Drawing Pad
  • Game Control
  • Biometric (authentication)
  • KVM Switch
  • Touch Screen
  • Camera


83.

CTR – RBG beams are aimed and at a pixel level. The intensity of each of the three beams are ‘dialed’ such that the appropriate color is produced in the targe pixel.


84.

LED – Light-emitted Diod.


85.

Resolution:

  • Pixels(s)
  • Dot Pitch
  • Contrast Ratio
  • Refresh Rate
  • Game Control
  • Interlaced/non-Interlaced
  • Horizonatal vertical color
  • Aspect Ratio
  • Native Resoltion


86.

Digital Light Processing – technology used in Projectors.


87.

  • Floppy
  • Hard Drive

– storage types used magnetic media.


88.

  • Form Factor (ATX/ITX …etc)
  • Power Requirements
  • – form factor of the system board and case.


89.

RAID 0 – disk striping without parity.

RAID 0:

Raid-0


90.

  • CPU
  • RAM
  • Graphics
  • Add-in Cards
  • PSU inputs
  • Operation System (many not require re-installment if the chips sets match closely)
  • Case

– form factor of the system board and case.


91.

  • Socket
  • BIOS
  • Chip set
  • Heat sync
  • Voltage
  • Vendors web set

– The manufacturers’ web site will provide information and content such as compatibility lists software updates.


92.

Cache memory – SRAM memory.


93.

Fallback to the slower memory speed – Also memory speed potential is a matter of CPU support.


94.

NONE – DDR, DDR2 and DDR3 all differ between each other physically (form factor slots) and electrically. A system board with slots for more than one memory type can use only one of those types at a time.


95.

  • Noise
  • Error messages
  • Data or application corruption


96.

  • IDE/ATA HD cable


97.

  • Must be terminated
  • Supports up to 15 devices


98.

  • daisy-chain


99.

  • Video Card